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TREATY OF AMITY AND ECONOMIC RELATIONS
THE KINGDOM OF THAILAND
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The Kingdom of Thailand and the United States of America, desirous of promoting friendly relations traditionally existing between them and of encouraging mutually beneficial trade and closer economic and cultural intercourse between their peoples, have resolved to conclude a Treaty of Amity and Economic Relations, and for that purpose have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THAILAND:
His Excellency THANAT KHOMAN, Minister of Foreign
Affairs of the Kingdom of Thailand; and
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. OF AMERICA:
His Excellency GRAHAM MARTIN, Ambassador Extraordinary
and Plenipotentiary of the United States of
America to the Kingdom of Thailand;
Who, having communicated to each other their full powers found to be in due form, have agreed as follows;
1. Nationals of either Party shall, subject to the laws relating to the entry and sojourn of aliens, be permitted to, enter the territories of the other Party, to travel therein freely. and to reside at places of their choice and in particular to enter the territories of the other Party and to remain therein of the purpose of : (a) carrying on trade between the territories of the two Parties and engaging in related commercial activities; or (b) developing and directing the operations of an enterprise in which they have invested or are actively in process of investing a substantial amount of capital. Each Party reserves the right to exclude, restrict the movement of, or expel aliens on grounds relating to public order, morals, health and safety. The provisions of (b) above shall be construed as extending to a national of either Party seeking to enter the territories of the other Party solely for the purpose of developing and directing the operations of an enterprise in the territories of such other Party in which his employer has invested or is actively in the process of investing a substantial atuount of capital, provided that such employer is a national or company of the same nationality as the applicant and that the applicant is employed by such national or company in a responsible capacity.
2. Nationals of either Party within the territories of the other Party shall receive the most constant protection and security, in no case less than that required by international law. When any such national is in custody, he shall in every respect receive reasonable and humane treatment; and on his demand the diplomatic or consular representative of his country shall be immediately notified and accorded full opportunity to safeguard his interests. He shall be promptly informed of the accusations against him, and allowed ample facilities to defend himself.
3. Nationals of either Party shall enjoy in the territories of the other Party entire liberty of conscience, and, subject to applicable laws, ordinances and regulations, shall enjoy the right of private and public exercise of their worship.
1. Companies constituted under the applicable laws and regulations of either Party shall be deemed to have the nationality of that Party and shall have their juridical status recognized within the territories of the other Party. As used in the present Treat, "companies" means:
(a) with reference to Thai companies: Juristic persons under Thai laws, whether or not with limited liability and whether or not for pecuniary profit;
(b) with reference to United States companies: corporations, partnerships, companies, and other associations, whether or not with limited liability and whether or not for pecuniary profit.
2. Nationals and companies of either Party shall have free access to courts of justice and administrative agescies within the territories of the other Party, in all degrees of jurisdiction, both in the defense and in the pursuit of their rights. Such access shall be allowed upon terms no less favorable than those applicable to nationals and companies of such other Party or of any third country, including the terms applicable to requirements for deposit of security. It is understood that companies not engaged in activities within the country shalt enjoy the right of such access without any requirement of registration or domestication.
3. Contracts entered into between nationals and companies of either Party and nationals and companies of the other Patty, that provide for the settlement by arbitration of controversies, shall not be deemed unenforceable within the territories of such other Party merely on the grounds that the place designated for the arbitration proceedings is outside such territories; or chat the nationality of one or snore of the arbitrators is not that of such other Party. No award duly rendered pursuant to any such contract, and final and enforceable. under the laws of the place where rendered, shall be deemed invalid or denied effective means of enforcement, within the territories of either Party merely on the grounds that the place where such award was rendered is outside such territories or that the nationality of one or morn of the arbitrators is not that of such Party.
1. Each Party shall at all times accord fair and equitable treatment to nationals and companies of the other Party, and to their property and enterprises; shall refrain from applying unreasonable or discriminatory measures that would impair their legally acquired rights acid interests; and shall assure that their lawful contractual rights are afforded effective means of enforcement, in conformity with the applicable laws.
2. Property of nationals and companies of either Party, including direct or indirect interests in property, shall receive the most constant protection and security within the territories of the other Party. Such property shall not be taken without due process of law or without payment of just compensation in accordance with the principles of international taw.
3. The dwellings, offices, warehouses, factories, and other premises of nationals and companies of either Party located within the territories of the other Party shall not be subject to entry or molestation witbout just cause. Official searches and examinations of such premises and their contents shall be made only according to law and with careful regard for the convenience of the occupants and the conduct of business.
1. Nationals and companies of either Party shall be accorded national treatment with respect to establishing, as well as acquiring interests in, enterprises of all types for engaging in commercial, industrial, financial end other business activities within the territories of the other Party.
2. Each party reserves the right to prohibit aliens from establishing or acquiring interests, or to limit the extent to which aliens may establish or acquire interests, in enterprises engaged within its territories in communications, transport, fiduciary functions, banking involving depository functions, the exploitation of land, or other natural resources, or domestic trade la indigenous agricultural products, provided that it shall accord to nationals and companies of the other Party treatment no less favorable in this connection than that accorded nationals and companies of any third country.
3. The provisions of paragraph I do riot include the practice of professions, or callings reserved for the nationals of each Party.
4. Enterprises which are or may hereafter be established or acquired by nationals and companies of either Party within the territories of the other Party and which are owned or controlled by such nationals and companies, whether in the form of individual proprietorships, direct branches or companies constituted under the laws of such other Party, shall be permitted freely to conduct their activities therein upon terms no less favorable than like enterprises owned or controlled by nationals of such other Party or of any third country.
5. Nationals and companies of either Party shall enjoy the right to control and manage the enterprises which they have established or acquired within the territories of the other Party, and shall be permitted without discrimination to do ail things normally found necessary and proper to the effective conduct of enterprises engaged in like activities.
6. Nationals and companies of either Party shall be permitted, in accordance with the applicable laws, to engage, within the territories of the other Party, accountants or other technical experts, executive personnel, attorneys, agents and other specialists of their choice. Moreover, such nationals and companies shall be permitted to engage accountants and other technical experts, regardless of the extent to which they may have qualified for the practice of a profession within the territories of such other Party, for the particular purpose of raking examinations, audits and technical investigations for internal purposes exclusively for, and rendering reports to, such nationals and companies in connection with the planning and operation of their enterprises within such territories.
1. Nationals and companies of either Party shall be accorded national treatment within the territories of the other Party with respect to: (a) leasing immovable property needed for their residence or for the conduct of activities pursuant to the present Treaty; (b) purchasing and otherwise acquiring movable property of all kinds, subject to any limitations on acquisition of shares in enterprises that may be imposed consistently with Article IV; and (c) disposing of property of all kinds by sale, testament or otherwise.
2. Nationals and companies of either Party shall have within the territories of the other Party the same right as nationals and companies of that other Party in regard to patents for invention, trade marks, trade names, designs and copyright in literary and artistic works, upon compliance with the applicable laws and regulations. if any.
1. Nationals and companies of either Party shall not be subject to the payment of taxes, fees or charges within the territories of the other Party, or to requirements with respect to the levy and collection thereof, more burdensome than those borne by nationals, of all third countries. The rates for such fees shall not exceed those charged such nationals of any third country residents and companies of any third country. In the case of nationals of either Party residing within the territories of the other Party, and of companies of either Party engaged in trade or other gainful pursuit or in non-profit activities therein, such taxes, fees, charges and requirements shall not be more burdensome than those borne by nationals and companies of such other Party.
2. Each Party, however, reserves the right to: (a) extend specific tax advantages onIy on the basis of reciprocity, or pursuant to agreements for the avoidance of double taxation or the mutual protection of revenue: and (b) apply special provisions in extending advantages to its nationals and residents in connection with joint returns by husband and wife, and as to the exemptions of a personal nature allowed to non-residents in connection with income and inheritance taxes.
3. Companies of zither Party shall not be subject. within the territories of the other Party, to the payment of taxes upon income not attributable to sources within such territories, or upon trausactions or capital not attributable to the operations and investments thereof within such territories.
4.The foregoing provisions shall not prevent the levying, in appropriate cases, of fees relating to the accomplishment of police and other formalities, if these fees are also levied on nationals of all third countries. The rates for such fees shall not exceed those changed such nationals of any third country.